Investigation the effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on liver and stress oxidative parameters at the presence of magnetic field in rat

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Bio Sciences, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Biochemistry, falavarjan branch, Islamic Azad university, Isfahan, Iran


Objective(s): This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles at presence of a constant magnetic field on rat liver and some stress oxidative parameters.
Materials and Methods: Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method using iron chloride (III) and iron sulphate (II). The nanoparticles properties were studied by XRD and TEM. Fourty male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. First group was injected with normal saline (control). Second group was injected with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (100 mg/kg). Third group was treated under a constant magnetic field and fourth group was treated with both of Fe3O4 nanoparticles injection and constant magnetic field (all injections are intra peritoneally). Liver parameters (ALT, AST, Total protein, Bilirubin) and some stress oxidative parameters such as SOD and GPX were measured for all groups, 15 and 30 days post injection.
Results: The size of the synthesized nanoparticles was determined 14 nm. The crystalline structure of the nanoparticles was spinel. Serum concentration of ALT and AST were changed in some groups compared with the control group. At the presence of constant magnetic field and iron oxide injection, the amount of total protein and bilirubin significantly increased compared with that of control group. The enzyme activity of SOD and GPX haven’t changed compared to the control group.
Conclusion: The results of this investigation show that this concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (100 mg/kg) have not irreversible toxic effects at the level of liver parameters. Also, they have not any serious effects on the SOD and GPX enzyme activity even at presence of a constant magnetic field. 


  1. Adams FC, Barbante C. Nanoscience nanotechnology and spectrometry, Spectrochim Acta B. 2013; 86: 3-13.
  2. Mallakpour S, Madani M. A review of current coupling agents for modification of metal oxide nanoparticles, Prog Org Coat. 2015; 86: 194-207.
  3. Mallakpour S, Jarahiyan A. An eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of biocompatible poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite with aid of modified CuO nanoparticles with citric acid and vitamin C: mechanical, thermal and optical properties, J Iran Chem Soci. 2016; 13: 509-518.
  4. Martin A. Magnetic fields and time dependent effects on development, Bioelectromag. 1988; 9: 393-396.
  5. Pazireh N. Effect of 50Hz Electromagnetic Fields on P448 and P450 Cytochromes and Gonadal Steroid Hormones in Male Mice, Horizon Med Sci. 2014; 20: 127-132.
  6. Chellaram C, Murugaboopathi G, John A, Sivakumar R, Ganesan S, Krithika S, Priya G. Significance of nanotechnology in food industry, APCBEE Procedia. 2014; 8: 109-113.
  7. Hilger I. In vivo applications of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, Int J Hyperthermia. 2013; 29: 828-834.
  8. Kucheryavy P, He J, John VT, Maharjan P, Spinu L, Goloverda GZ, Kolesnichenko V L. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with variable size and an iron oxidation state as prospective imaging agents, Langmuir. 2013; 29: 710-716.
  9. Shin JS, Kim BG. Exploring the active site of amine: pyruvate minotransferase on the basis of the substrate structure-reactivity relationship: how the enzyme controls substrate specificity and stereoselectivity, J Org Chem. 2002; 67: 2848-2853.
  10. Sun C, Lee JS, Zhang M. Magnetic nanoparticles in MR imaging and drug delivery, Adv Drug Deliv. Rev. 2008; 60: 1252-1265.
  11. Kim JE, Shin JY, Cho MH. Magnetic nanoparticles: an update of application for drug delivery and possible toxic effects, Arch toxicol. 2012; 86: 685-700.
  12. Stone V, Johnston H, Clift M J. Air pollution, ultrafine, nanoparticle toxicology: cellular and molecular interactions, IEEE Trans Nanobio. 2007; 6: 331-340.
  13. Mokhtari M, Shariati M, Gashmardi N. Effect of lead on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in adult male rats, Hormozgan Med J. 2007; 11: 115-120.
  14. Rudnicki M, Silveira M, Pereira T, Oliveira M, Reginatto F, Dal-Pizzol F, Moreira J. Protective effects of Passiflora alata extract pretreatment on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats, Food Chem Toxicol. 2007; 45: 656-661.
  15. Giannini E G, Testa R, Savarino V. Liver enzyme alteration: a guide for clinicians, CMAJ. 2005; 172: 367-379.
  16. Radak Z, Chung H Y, Goto S. Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise, Free Radical Biol Med. 2008; 44: 153-159.
  17. Balogh N, Gaal T, Ribiczeyné PS, Petri A. Biochemical and antioxidant changes in plasma and erythrocytes of pentathlon horses before and after exercise, Vet Clin Pathol. 2001; 30: 214-218.
  18. Yakubu M, Bilbis L, Lawal M, Akanji M. Effect of repeated administration of sildenafil citrate on selected enzyme activities of liver and kidney of male albino rats, Nig J Pure & Appl Sci. 2003; 18: 1395-1400.
  19. Singh D, Mehta S, Neoliya NK, Shukla YN, Mishra M. Hepatoprotective activityof Sarcostemma brevistigma against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats, Curr Sci. 2003; 84: 22-27.
  20. Hsieh Y, Guan Y, Tu C, Bratt PJ, Angerhofer A, Lepock JR, Hickey MJ, Tainer JA, Nick HS, Silverman DN. Probing the active site of human manganese superoxide dismutase: the role of glutamine 143, Biochem. 1998; 37: 4731-4739.
  21. Wu G, Haynes TE, Li H, Yan W, Meininger CJ. Glutamine metabolism to glucosamine is necessary for glutamine inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, Biochem J. 2001; 353: 245.
  22. Rotta LN, Schmidt AP, Melo e Souza TM, Nogueira CW, Souza KB, Izquierdo IA, Perry ML, Souza D O. Effects of undernutrition on glutamatergic parameters inrat brain, Neurochem Res. 2003; 28: 1181-1186.
  23. Ng CF, Schafer FQ, Buettner GR, Rodgers V. The rate of cellular hydrogen peroxide removal shows dependency on GSH: mathematical insight into in vivo H2O2 and GPx concentrations, Free radical Res. 2007; 41: 1201-121.
  24. Trouiller B, Reliene R, Westbrook A, Solaimani P, Schiestl RH. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce DNA damage and genetic instability in vivo in mice, Cancer Res. 2009; 69: 8784-8789.
  25. Vozarova B, Stefan N, Lindsay RS, Saremi A, Pratley RE, Bogardus C, Tataranni PA. High alanine aminotransferase is associated with decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes .2002; 51: 1889-1895.
  26. Battis Jr GN. The Enigma of Liver Enzymes: Transferases, J Insur Med. 1988; 20: 2-8.
  27. Christ-Crain M, Huber PR, Keller U, Meier C, Müller B, Puder J, Staub JJ. Changes in liver function correlate with the improvement of lipid profile after restoration of euthyroidism in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Excli J. 2004; 3:1-9.
  28. Popova J, Buravkova L. Blood biochemical parameters in women during long-term simulated hyperoxic diving up to 8 ATA, Undersea Hyperbaric Med. 2006; 33: 211-216.
  29. Zare S, Hayatgeibi H, Alivandi S, Ebadi A. Effects of whole-body magnetic field on changes of glucose and cortisol hormone in guinea pigs, Am J Biochem Biotechnol. 2005; 1: 217-219.
  30. Pashovkina M, Akoev I. Effect of low-intensity pulse-modulated microwave on human blood aspartate aminotransferase activity, Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000; 41: 59-61.