1. Lee KS, Buck M, Houglum K, Chojkier M. Activation of hepatic stellate cells by TGF alpha and collagen type I is mediated by oxidative stress through c-myb expression. J Clin Invest. 1995; 96: 2461–2468.
2. Serviddio G, Pereda J, Pallardó FV, Carretero J, Borras C, Cutrin J, Vendemiale G, Poli G, Viña J, Sastre J. Ursodeoxycholic acid protects against secondary biliary cirrhosis in rats by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress. Hepatology. 2004; 39: 711–720.
3. Antoine M., Tag CG, Wirz W, Borkham-Kamphorst E, Sawitza I, Gressner AM, Kiefer P. Upregulation of pleiotrophin expression in rat hepatic stellate cells by PDGF and hypoxia: implications for its role in experimental biliary liver fibrogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 337: 1153-1164.
4. Sztrymf B, JM Libert, Mougeot C, Lebrec D, Mazmanian M, Humbert M, Herve P. Cirrhotic rats with bacterial translocation have higher incidence and severity of hepatopulmonary syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005; 20: 1538-1544.
5. Liu TZ, Lee KT, Chern CL, Cheng JT, Stern A, Tsai LY. Free radical-triggered hepatic injury of experimental obstructive jaundice of rats involves overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and enhanced activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2001; 31: 383–390.
6. Aziz TA, Aziz MA, Fouad HH, Rashed LA, Salama H, Abd-Alla S, Wehab MA, Ahmed T. Interferon-alpha gene therapy prevents aflatoxin and carbon tetrachloride promoted hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Int J Mol Med. 2005; 15: 21-26.
7. Hines JE, Johnson SJ, Burt AD. In vivo responses of macrophages and perisinusoidal cells to cholestatic liver injury. Am J Pathol. 1993; 142: 511-518.
8. Poli G, Parola M. Oxidative damage and fibrogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997; 22: 287-305.
9. Dahm LJ, Hewett JA, Roth RA. Bile and bile salts potentiate superoxide anion release from activated rat peritoneal neutrophils. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1988; 95: 82-92.
10. Singh S, Shackleton G, Ah-Sing E, Chakraborty J, Bailey ME. Antioxidant defenses in the bile duct-ligated rat. Gastroenterology. 1992; 103: 1625-1629.
11. Poli G. Pathogenesis of liver fibrosis: role of oxidative stress. Mol Aspects Med. 2000; 21: 49-98.
12. Parola M, Robino G. Oxidative stress-related molecules and liver fibrosis. J Hepatol. 2001; 35: 297-306.
13. YT Huang, YC Hsu, CJ Chen, CT Liu, YH Wei. Oxidative stress-related changes in the livers of bile-duct-ligated rats. J Biomed Sci. 2003; 10; 170-178.
14. Wang A. Essentials of Materia Medica. Chongqing: Chongqing University Press, 1996: 104.
15. Kulkarni S, Dhir A. Berberine: a plant alkaloid with therapeutic potential for central nervoussystemdisorders. Phytother Res. 2010; 24: 317–324.
16. Saha P, Bhattacharjee S, Sarkar A, Manna A, Majumder S, Chatterjee M. Berberine chloride mediates its anti-leishmanial activity via differential regulation of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway in macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6: 18467.
17. Zheng HY, Xu WR. Research progression of pharmacologic actions of Umbellatine. Chin Tradit Herbal Drugs. 2004; 35: 708-711.
18. Domitrovi´c R, Jakovac H, Marchesi VV, and Blaˇzekovi´c B. Resolution of liver fibrosis by isoquinoline alkaloid berberine in CCl4-intoxicated mice is mediated by suppression of oxidative stress and upregulation of MMP-2 expression. J Med Food. 2013; 16: 518–528.
19. Sheng M, Zhou Y, Yu W, Weng Y, Xu R, Du H. Protective effect of berberine pretreatment in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat. Transplant Proc. 2015; 47: 275-82.
20. Hwang JM, Wang CJ, Chou FP, Tseng TH, Hsieh YS, Lin WL, Chu CY. Inhibitory effect of berberine on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. Arch Toxicol. 2002; 76: 664-670.
21. Zhang BJ, Xu D, Guo Y, Ping J, Chen LB, Wang H. Protection by and anti-oxidant mechanism of berberine against rat liver fibrosis induced by multiple hepatotoxic factors. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008; 35: 303–309.
22. Janbaz KH, Gilani AH. Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents. Fitoterapia. 2000; 71: 25–33.
23. Tan X, Ma J, Feng R, Ma C, Chen W, Sun Y. Tissue distribution of berberine and its metabolites after oral administration in rats. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8: 77969.
24. Liu Y, Hao H, Xie H, Lai L, Wang Q, Liu C, Wang G. Extensive intestinal first pass elimination and predominant hepatic distribution of berberine explain its low plasma levels in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010; 38: 1779–1784.
25. Zhang P, Qiang X, Zhang M, Ma D, Zhao Z, Zhou C, Liu X, Li R, Chen H, Zhang Y. Demethyleneberberine, a natural mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, inhibits mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and steatosis in alcoholic liver disease mouse model. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015; 352 : 139–147.
26. Pellicoro A, Ramachandran P, Iredale JP, Fallowfield JA. Liver fibrosis and repair: immune regulation of wound healing in a solid organ. Nat Rev Immunol. 2014; 14: 181–194.
27. Czaja AJ. Hepatic inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20: 2515–2532.
28. Chithrani DB. Nanoparticles for improved therapeutics and imaging in cancer therapy. Recent Pat Nanotechnol. 2010; 4: 171–180.
29. Heneweer C, Gendy SE, Peñate-Medina O. Liposomes and inorganic nanoparticles for drug delivery and cancer imaging. Ther Deliv. 2012; 3: 645–656.
30. Torchilin VP. Multifunctional, stimuli-sensitive nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2014; 13: 813–827.
31. Surendran SP, Thomas RG, Moon MJ, and YY Jeong. Nanoparticles for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017; 12: 6997–7006.
32. Nguyen TX, Huang L, Liu L, Elamin Abdalla AM, Gauthier M and Yang G. Chitosan-coated nano-liposomes for the oral delivery of berberine hydrochloride. J Mater Chem B. 2014; 2: 7149-7159.
33. Yu F, Ao M, Zheng X, Li N, Xia J, Li Y, Li D, Hou Z, Qi Z, Chen XD. PEG-lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles loaded with berberine-phospholipid complex to facilitate the oral delivery efficiency. Drug Deliv. 2017; 24: 825-833.
34. Wang T, Wang N, Song H, Xi X, Wang J, Hao A, Li T. Preparation of an anhydrous reverse micelle delivery system to enhance oral bioavailability and anti-diabetic efficacy of berberine. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2011; 44: 127-135.
35. Wang Z, Wu J, Zhou Q, Wang Y, Chen T. Berberine nanosuspension enhances hypoglycemic efficacy on streptozotocin induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 239749.
36. Yu F, Li Y, Chen Q, He Y, Wang H, Yang L, Guo S, Meng Z, Cui J, Xue M, Chen XD. Monodisperse microparticles loaded with the self-assembled berberine-phospholipid complex-based phytosomes for improving oral bioavailability and enhancing hypoglycemic efficiency. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2016; 103: 136-148.
37. Kapoor R, Singh S, Tripathi M, Bhatnagar P, Kakkar P, Gupta KC. O-hexadecyl-dextran entrapped berberine nanoparticles abrogate high glucose stress induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes. PLoS One. 2014; 9: 89124.
38. Wang N, Xu Q, Tan HY, Hong M, Li S, Yuen MF, Feng Y. Berberine inhibition of fibrogenesis in a rat model of liver fibrosis and in hepatic stellate cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016; 2016: 8762345.
39. Zverinskiĭ IV, Mel’nichenko NG, Poplavskiĭ VA, Sut’ko IP, Telegin PG, Shliakhtun AG. The effect of berberine administration of evaluation of the functional state of rat liver after ligation of common bile duct. Biomed Khim. 2013; 59: 90-96.
40. Soylu AR, Aydogdu N, Basaran UN, Altaner S, Tarcin O, Gedik N, Umit H, Tezel A, Dokmeci G, Baloglu H, Ture M. Antioxidants vitamin E and C attenuate hepatic fibrosis in biliary-obstructed rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12: 6835-6841.
41. Jin H, Baode S, He X, Ling D, Hailong Y. Daily administration times of canhuang tablet based on a pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic model in jaundiced rats. J Tradit Chin Med. 2015; 35: 84-89.
42. Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem. 1974; 47: 469–474.
43. Annino JS, Gese RW. Clinical Chemistry Principles and Procedures, 4 edition. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1976.
44. Ishak K, Baptista A, Bianchi L, Callea F, De Groote J, Gudat F, Denk H, Desmet V, Korb G, MacSween RN. Histological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis. J Hepatol. 1995; 22: 696-699.
45. Hellerbrand C, Schattenberg JM, Peterburs P, Lechner A, Brignoli R. The potential of silymarin for the treatment of hepatic disorders. Clin Phytoscience. 2016; 2: 7.
46. Sun X, Zhang X, Hu H, Lu Y, Chen J, Yasuda K, Wang H. Berberine Inhibits Hepatic Stellate Cell Proliferation and Prevents Experimental Liver Fibrosis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009; 32: 1533-1537.
47. Onalan AK, Tuncal S, Kilicoglu S, Celepli S, Durak E, Kilicoglu B, Devrim E, Barlas AM, Kismet K. Effect of silymarin on oxidative stress and liver histopathology in experimental obstructive jaundice model. Acta Cir Bras. 2016; 31: 801-806.
48. Younis N, Shaheen MA, Abdallah MH. Silymarin-loaded Eudragit(®) RS100 nanoparticles improved the ability of silymarin to resolve hepatic fibrosis in bile duct ligated rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 81: 93-103.
49. MB Chenoweth, CL Hake. The smaller halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Ann Rev Pharmacol. 1962; 2: 363.
50. Sallie R, Tredger JM, William R. Drugs and the liver. Part I., Testing liver function, Biopharm Drug Disp. 1991; 12: 251-259.
51. Luster MI, Simeonova PP, Gallucci R, Matheson J. Tumor necrosis factor-α and toxicology. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1999; 29: 491–511.
52. Simeonova PP, Gallucci RM, Hulderman T, Wilson R, Kommineni C, Rao M, Luster MI. The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in liver toxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001; 177: 112–120.
53. Zhao W, Xue R, Zhou ZX, Kong WJ, Jiang JD. Reduction of blood lipid by berberine in hyperlipidemic patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Biomed Pharmacother. 2008; 62: 730-731.
54. Feng Y, Siu KY, Ye X, Wang N, Yuen MF, Leung CH, Tong Y, Kobayashi S. Hepatoprotective effects of berberine on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Chin Med. 2010; 5: 33.
55. Domitrovic R, Jakovac H, Blagojevic G. Hepatoprotective activity of berberine is mediated by inhibition of TNF-alpha, COX-2, and iNOS expression in CCl(4)-intoxicated mice. Toxicology. 2011; 280: 33–43.
56. Li J, Pan Y, Kan M, Xiao X, Wang Y, Guan F, Zhang X, Chen L. Hepatoprotective effects of berberine on liver fibrosis via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Life Sci. 2014; 98: 24-30.
57. Hsiang CY, Wu SL, Cheng SE, Ho TY. Acetaldehyde-induced interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production is inhibited by berberine through nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. J Biomed Sci. 2005; 12: 791-801.
58. Jeong HW, Hsu KC, Lee JW, Ham M, Huh JY, Shin HJ, Kim WS, Kim JB. Berberine suppresses proinflammatory responses through AMPK activation in macrophages. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 296: 955-964.
59. Sun Y, Yuan X, Zhang F, Han Y, Chang X, Xu X, Li Y, Gao X. Berberine ameliorates fatty acid-induced oxidative stress in human hepatoma cells. Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 11340.
60. M. Xue, L. Zhang, M.X Yang., W. Zhang, X.M. Li, Z.M. Ou, Z.P. Li, S.H. Liu, X.J. Li, S.Y. Yang. Berberine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles are concentrated in the liver and ameliorate hepatosteatosis in db/db mice. Int J Nanomedicine. 2015; 10: 5049-5057.