Green synthesis and antibacterial activity of zinc selenide (ZnSe) nanoparticles

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Biotechnology, Higher Education Institute of Rabe-Rashid, Tabriz, Iran

3 Liver and Digestive Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

4 Department of Biotechnology, Higher Education Institute of Rabe-Rashid, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Biotechnology, East Azerbaijan Agricultural Education Center, Tabriz, Iran


Objective(s): In this study, zinc selenide nanoparticles (ZnSe NPs) were prepared via green synthesis as a simple, fast, and eco-friendly method at an ambient temperature and various reaction pH (11, 12, and 13). Also ZnSe NPs antibacterial activity was investigated.
Materials and methods: The ZnSe NPs were characterized using instruments such as UV-Vis spectrophotometry within the range of 360-610 nanometers and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of ZnSe NPs (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1,024 μg/ml) was examined against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter aerogenes), and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms using the broth microdilution MIC method.
Results: The results of UV-Vis spectrum and TEM confirmed the successful synthesis of ZnSe NPs with the mean diameter of approximately 50 nanometers. According to the results of broth microdilution MIC method, there were differences in the resistance of the bacterial strains. In addition, Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were observed to be completely resistant to various concentrations of ZnSe NPs.
Conclusion: It seems that synthesized ZnSe NPs can be capable of inhibiting growth of bacterial strains especially Gram-positive strains.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Green chemistry, Nanoparticles, Zinc selenide


1.Sirelkhatim A, Mahmud S, Seeni A, Kaus N, Ann L, Bakhori S, et al. Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism. Nano-Micro Lett. 2015; 7(3): 219-242.
2.De M, Ghosh PS, Rotello VM. Applications of Nanoparticles in Biology. Adv Mater. 2008; 20(22): 4225-4241.
3.Vidic J, Stankic S, Haque F, Ciric D, Le Goffic R, Vidy A. Selective antibacterial effects of mixed ZnMgO nanoparticles. J Nanoparticle Res. 2013; 15(5): 1595-1605.
4.Rasmussen JW, Martinez E, Louka P, Wingett DG. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Selective Destruction of Tumor Cells and Potential for Drug Delivery Applications. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2010; 7(9): 1063-1077.
5.Yadav K, Giri M, Jaggi N. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic studies of ZnSe and Ag:ZnSe nanoparticles. Res Chem Intermediate. 2015; 41(12): 9967-9978.
6.Darroudi M, Hakimi M, Goodarzi E, Kazemi Oskuee R. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs): Green preparation, characterization and their cytotoxicity effects. Ceram Int. 2014; 40(9, Part B): 14641-14645.
7.Darroudi M, Sabouri Z, Kazemi Oskuee R, Khorsand Zak A, Kargar H, Abd Hamid MHN. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of ZnO nanopowders and their cytotoxic effects. Ceram Int. 2014; 40(3): 4827-4831.
8.Zak AK, Hashim AM, Darroudi M. Optical properties of ZnO/BaCO3 nanocomposites in UV and visible regions. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2014; 9(1): 1-6.
9.Zamiri R, Azmi BZ, Darroudi M, Sadrolhosseini A, Husin MS, Zaidan AW. Preparation of starch stabilized silver nanoparticles with spatial self-phase modulation properties by laser ablation technique. Appl Phys A. 2011; 102(1): 189-194.
10.Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Ahmad MB, Sadrolhosseini AR, Shameli K, Darroudi M. Investigation of spatial self-phase modulation of silver nanoparticles in clay suspension. Optik. 2011; 122(9): 836-838.
11.Peeters E, Nelis HJ, Coenye T. Comparison of multiple methods for quantification of microbial biofilms grown in microtiter plates. J Microbiol Meth. 2008; 72(2): 157-165.
12.Van den Driessche F, Rigole P, Brackman G, Coenye T. Optimization of resazurin-based viability staining for quantification of microbial biofilms. J Microbiol Meth. 2014; 98: 31-34.
13.Archana J, Navaneethan M, Prakash T, Ponnusamy S, Muthamizhchelvan C, Hayakawa Y. Chemical synthesis and functional properties of magnesium doped ZnSe nanoparticles. Mater Lett. 2013; 100: 54-57.
14.Li Y, Ding Y, Qian Y, Zhang Y, Yang L. A Solvothermal Elemental Reaction to Produce Nanocrystalline ZnSe. Inorg Chem. 1998; 37(12): 2844-2845.
15.Liang Q, Bai Y, Han L, Deng X, Wu X, Wang Z. Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnSe:Cu quantum dots and their luminescent mechanism study by first-principles. J Lumin. 2013; 143: 185-192.
16.Khataee AR, Hosseini M, Hanifehpour Y, Safarpour M, Joo SW. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Nd-doped ZnSe nanoparticles with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. Res Chem Intermediate. 2014; 40(2): 495-508.
17.Park H, Chung H, Kim W. Synthesis of ultrathin wurtzite ZnSe nanosheets. Mater Lett. 2013; 99: 172-175.
18.Molaei M, Khezripour AR, Karimipour M. Synthesis of ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) using a rapid microwave irradiation method and investigation of the effect of copper (Cu) doping on the optical properties. Appl Surf Sci. 2014; 317: 236-240.
19.Qin H, Jian W, Zhang Y, Kim T, Jiang Z, Jiang D. A simple and novel route for the synthesis of water soluble ZnSe quantum dots using the Nano-Se as the reaction intermediate. Mater Lett. 2012; 67(1): 28-31.
20.Khataee A, Arefi-Oskoui S, Abdollahi B, Hanifehpour Y, Joo S. Synthesis and characterization of Pr x Zn1−x Se nanoparticles for photocatalysis of four textile dyes with different molecular structures. Res Chem Intermediate. 2015; 41(11): 8425-8439.
21.Hsieh SH, Chen WJ, Yeh TH. Degradation of methylene blue using ZnSe–graphene nanocomposites under visible-light irradiation. Ceram Int. 2015; 41(10, Part A): 13759-13766.
22.Khandan Nasab N, Dehnad AR, Salimizand H, Taherzadeh D, Prakash D, Verma K. Zinc selenide nanoparticles (ZnSe-NPs): Green synthesis and investigation of their cytotoxicity effects. Ceram Int. 2016; 42(10): 12115-12118.
23.O’Toole GA. Microtiter Dish Biofilm Formation Assay. J Vis Exp. 2011; (47): 2437-2438.