Nano-structure TiO2 film coating on 316L stainless steel via sol-gel technique for blood compatibility improvement


1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran

3 Iranian Blood Transfusion Research Centre, Tehran, Iran



Titanium oxides are known to be appropriate hemocompatible materials which are suggested as coatings for blood-contacting devices. Little is known about the influence of nanometric crystal structure, layer thickness, and semiconducting characteristics of TiO2
on blood hemostasis.
Materials and Methods:
Having used sol-gel dip coating method in this study, TiO2 thin films were deposited on nano-scale electro-polished stainless steel 316L with 1 to 5 nano-sized layers. Surface morphology and structure of the film were studied with X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Blood compatibility was also determined by measuring the platelet activation (CD62P expression), platelet adhesion (Scanning Electron Microscopy), and the blood clotting time on these samples.  
The films were compact and smooth and existed mainly in the form of anatase. By increasing the number of TiO2 thin layer, clotting time greatly extended, and the population of activated platelet and P-selectine expression changed according to the surface characteristics of each layer.  
The findings revealed that stainless steel 316L coated with nano-structured TiO2 layer improved blood compatibility, in terms of both blood platelet activity and coagulation cascade, which can decrease the thrombogenicity of blood contacting devices which were made from stainless steel.


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