Effects of silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat

Authors

1 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

4 Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

10.7508/nmj.2014.03.011

Abstract

Objective(s):
Nanotechnology and nanoparticles are increasingly recognized for their potential applications in aerospace engineering, nanoelectronics, and environmental remediation, medicine and consumer products. More importantly is the potential for the application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the treatment of diseases that require maintenance of circulating drug concentration or targeting of specific cells or organs the aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of Ag NP antioxidative biomarkers in rats. Ag NPs are used to investigate the potential risks for the environment and health.  
 
Materials and Methods:  
Rats received Ag NP, 5, 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day IP. After two week of treatment, the activity of enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood samples were measured.  
 
Results:
Ag NP in 5, 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg reduced activities of CAT, SOD and increased TAC in plasma.  
 
Conclusion:
In this study, Ag NP with 500mg/kg induced activities of CAT, SOD and decreased TAC. It is concluded that antioxidative properties of Ag NP is dose dependent.

Keywords


1. S. Fabrication, characterization of chitosan/nanosilver film and its potential antibacterial application. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2009; 20(14): 2129-2144.

2. Chen X, Schluesener H. Nanosilver: a nanoproduct in medical application. Toxicol Lett. 2008; 176(1): 1-12.

3. Wijnhoven SW, Peijnenburg WJ, Herberts CA, Hagens WI, Oomen AG, Heugens EH, et al. Nano-silver-a review of available data and knowledge gaps in human and environmental risk assessment. Nanotoxicology. 2009; 3(2): 109-138.

4. Morones JR, Elechiguerra JL, Camacho A, Holt K, Kouri JB, Ramírez JT, et al. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology. 2005; 16(10): 23-46.

5. Melaiye A, Youngs WJ. Silver and its application as an antimicrobial agent. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2005; 15(2): 125-130.

6. Fabrega J, Renshaw JC, Lead JR Interactions of silver nanoparticles with Pseudomonas putida biofilms. Environ Sci Technol. 2009 ; 1:43(23): 9004-9.

7. Chinnapongse SL, MacCuspie RI, Hackley VA. Persistence of singly dispersed silver nanoparticles in natural freshwaters, synthetic seawater, and simulated estuarine waters. Sci Total Environ. 2011; 409(12): 2443-2450.

8. Moon K-S, Dong H, Maric R, Pothukuchi S, Hunt A, Li Y, et al. Thermal behavior of silver nanoparticles for low-temperature interconnect applications. J Electron Mater. 2005; 34(2): 168-175.

9. Alvarez-Puebla RA, Aroca RF. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles with controllable surface charge and their application to surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Anal Chem. 2009; 81(6): 2280-2285.

10. Cho K-H, Park J-E, Osaka T, Park S-G. The study of antimicrobial activity and preservative effects of nanosilver ingredient. Electrochim Acta. 2005; 51(5): 956-960.

11. Kong H, Jang J. Antibacterial properties of novel poly (methyl methacrylate) nanofiber containing silver nanoparticles. Langmuir. T2008; 24(5): 2051-2056.

12. Shrivastava S, Bera T, Roy A, Singh G, Ramachandrarao P, Dash D. Characterization of enhanced antibacterial effects of novel silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology. 2007; 18(22): 225103. Availabe from URL: doi:10.1088/0957-4484/18/22/225103.

13. El-Rafie M, El-Naggar M, Ramadan M, Fouda MM, Al-Deyab SS, Hebeish A. Environmental synthesis of silver nanoparticles using hydroxypropyl starch and their characterization. Carbohydr Polym. 2011; 86(2): 630-635.

14. Choi JE, Kim S, Ahn JH, Youn P, Kang JS, Park K, et al. Induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis by silver nanoparticles in the liver of adult zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2010; 100(2): 151-159.

15. Kim Y-J, Yang SI, Ryu J-C. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nano-silver in mammalian cell lines. Mol Cell Toxicol. 2010; 6(2): 119-125.

16. Li JJ, Hartono D, Ong C-N, Bay B-H, Yung L-YL. Autophagy and oxidative stress associated with gold nanoparticles. Biomaterials. 2010; 31(23): 5996-6003.

17. AshaRani P, Low Kah Mun G, Hande MP, Valiyaveettil S. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human cells. ACS nano. 2008; 3(2): 279-290.

18. Huang C-C, Aronstam RS, Chen D-R, Huang Y-W. Oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, and altered gene expression in human lung epithelial cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010; 24(1): 45-55.

19. Miura N, Shinohara Y. Cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction by silver nanoparticles in HeLa cells. Biochem Biophys Res commun. 2009; 390(3): 733-737.

20. Heng BC, Zhao X, Xiong S, Woei Ng K, Yin-Chiang Boey F, Say-Chye Loo J. Toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) is accentuated by oxidative stress. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48(6): 1762-1766.

21. Stebounova LV, Adamcakova-Dodd A, Kim JS, Park H, O'Shaughnessy PT, Grassian VH, et al. Nanosilver induces minimal lung toxicity or inflammation in a subacute murine inhalation model. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2011; 8(1): 5.

22. Chen D, Xi T, Bai J. Biological effects induced by nanosilver particles: in vivo study. Biomed Mater. 2007; 2(3): S126.

23. Benzie IFF, Strain J. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996; 239(1): 70-6.

24. Shipway AN, Katz E, Willner I. Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications. Chem Phys Chem. 2000; 1(1): 18-52.

25. Le Guyader L, Chen C. Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity. In: Liu RS, editor. Controlled Nanofabrication: Advances and Applications. Pan Stanford Publishing; 2012: 103.

26. Park E-J, Yi J, Chung K-H, Ryu D-Y, Choi J, Park K. Oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in cultured BEAS-2B cells. Toxicol Lett. 2008; 180(3): 222-229.

27. Foldbjerg R, Olesen P, Hougaard M, Dang DA, Hoffmann HJ, Autrup H. PVP-coated silver nanoparticles and silver ions induce reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and necrosis in THP-1 monocytes. Toxicol Lett. 2009; 190(2): 156-162.

28. Piao MJ, Kang KA, Lee IK, Kim HS, Kim S, Choi JY, et al. Silver nanoparticles induce oxidative cell damage in human liver cells through inhibition of reduced glutathione and induction of mitochondria-involved apoptosis. Toxicol Lett. 2011; 201(1): 92-100.

29. Beer C, Foldbjerg R, Hayashi Y, Sutherland DS, Autrup H. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles—nanoparticle or silver ion? Toxicol Lett. 2012; 208(3): 286-292.

30. Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A. Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotech Adv. 2009; 27(1): 76-83.

31. Asharani P, Wu YL, Gong Z, Valiyaveettil S. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models. Nanotechnology. 2008; 19(25): 255102.

32. Lubick N. Nanosilver toxicity: ions, nanoparticles- or both? Environ Sci & Technol. 2008; 42(23): 8617–8617.

33. Fabrega J, Fawcett SR, Renshaw JC, Lead JR. Silver nanoparticle impact on bacterial growth: effect of pH, concentration, and organic matter. Environ Sci Technol. 2009; 43(19): 7285-7290.

34. El Badawy AM, Silva RG, Morris B, Scheckel KG, Suidan MT, Tolaymat TM. Surface charge-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles. Environ Sci Technol. 2010; 45(1): 283-287.

35. Marambio-Jones C, Hoek EM. A review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials and potential implications for human health and the environment. J Nanopart Res. 2010; 12(5): 1531-1551.