Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, India



Our present study sought to evaluate hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of methanol extract of Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles (GNaP) in acetaminophen (APAP) - induced hepatotoxicity of fresh water common carp fish.
Materials and Methods:
GNaP were prepared by green synthesis method using methanol extract of Azolla microphylla.  Twenty four fishes weighing 146 ± 2.5 g were used in this experiment and these were divided into four experimental groups, each comprising 6 fishes. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 fishes were exposed to APAP (500 mg/kg) for 24 h. Groups 3 and 4 fishes were exposed to APAP (500 mg/kg) + GNaP (2.5 mg/kg) and GNaP (2.5 mg/kg) for 24 h, respectively. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potentials were assessed by measuring liver damage, biochemical parameters, ions status, and histological alterations.
APAP exposed fish showed significant elevated levels of metabolic enzymes (LDH, G6PDH and MDH), hepatotoxic markers (GPT, GOT and ALP), reduced hepatic glycogen, lipids, protein, albumin, globulin, increased levels of bilirubin, creatinine, and oxidative stress markers (TBRAS,  LHP and protein carbonyl), altered the tissue enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GST) non-enzyme (GSH), cellular sulfhydryl (T-SH, P-SH and NP-SH) levels, reduced hepatic ions (Ca2+, Na+ and K+), and abnormal liver histology. It was observe that GNaP has reversal effects on the levels of above mentioned parameters in APAP hepatotoxicity.
Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.


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