Applications of nanotechnology in endodontic: A Review

Document Type : Review Paper


1 Department of endodontics, Faculty of dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of pediatric dentistry, Faculty of dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran


Owing to its favorable impacts on the properties of materials, nanotechnology is rapidly growing. Adding nano particles to a material can significantly affect its mechanical and physical properties. In recent years, nanotechnology has been applied in the field of medical sciences in order to enhance the quality of treatment procedures. This technology can be used in various aspects of dentistry. In the present study, a comprehensive literature review is conducted on the applications of nanotechnology in endodontics. It was concluded that nanotechnology can be utilized in fillers, irrigants and photodynamic therapy to achieve more beneficial results. Based on the reviewed studies, it is well acknowledged that antibacterial nano particles can be used for disinfection and have shown acceptable efficacy in elimination of bacterial cells. Moreover, nanotechnology is applicable to sealers used in endodontics. By using nano-sized materials, anti-leakage property of the sealer can be enhanced. In addition, nanotechnology can be applied in photodynamic therapy in endodontics. By using nanotechnology, it is possible to enhance the efficacy of this method.  


1. Ahmadi MH, Nazari MA, Ghasempour R, Madah H, Shafii MB, Ahmadi MA. Thermal Conductivity Ratio Prediction of A l  2   O 3   /water Nanofluid by Applying Connectionist Methods. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp. January 2018.
2. Nazari MA, Ghasempour R, Ahmadi MH, Heydarian G, Shafii MB. Experimental investigation of graphene oxide nanofluid on heat transfer enhancement of pulsating heat pipe. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2018; 91: 90-94.
3. Ahmadi MH, Ahmadi MA, Nazari MA, Mahian O, Ghasempour R. A proposed model to predict thermal conductivity ratio of Al2O3/EG nanofluid by applying least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) and genetic algorithm as a connectionist approach. J Therm Anal Calorim. February 2018: 1-11.
4. Ahmadi MH, Ahmadi MA, Nazari MA, Mahian O, Ghasempour R. A proposed model to predict thermal conductivity ratio of Al2O3/EG nanofluid by applying least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) and genetic algorithm as a connectionist approach. J Therm Anal Calorim. February 2018: 1-11.
5. Sultan S, Siqueira G, Zimmermann T, Mathew AP. 3D printing of nano-cellulosic biomaterials for medical applications. Curr Opin Biomed Eng. 2017; 2: 29-34.
6. Bobrowska DM, Brzezinski K, Plonska-Brzezinska ME. PEGylated Carbon Nano-onions Composite as a Carrier of Polyphenolic Compounds: A Promising System for Medical Applications and Biological Sensors. Colloid Interface Sci Commun. 2017; 21: 6-9.
7. Amoli-Diva M, Daghighi Asli M, Karimi S. FeMn2O4 nanoparticles coated dual responsive temperature and pH-responsive polymer as a magnetic nano-carrier for controlled delivery of letrozole anti-cancer. Nanomedicine J. 2017;4(4):218-223.
8. Ebrahimi M, Dehghani F, Farhadian N, Karimi M, Golmohammadzadeh S. Investigating the anti-apoptotic effect of sesame oil and honey in a novel nanostructure form for treatment of heart failure. Nanomedicine J. 2017; 4(4): 245-253.
9. Taslimifar M, Mohammadi M, Afshin H, Saidi MH, Shafii MB. Overall thermal performance of ferrofluidic open loop pulsating heat pipes: An experimental approach. Int J Therm Sci. 2013; 65: 234-241.
10.Mohammadi M, Mohammadi M, Shafii MB. Experimental Investigation of a Pulsating Heat Pipe Using Ferrofluid (Magnetic Nanofluid). J Heat Transfer. 2012; 134(1): 014504.
11.Jiang S, Zhou D, Zhang L, Ouyang J, Yu X, Cui X, Han B. Comparison of compressive strength and electrical resistivity of cementitious composites with different nano- and micro-fillers. Arch Civ Mech Eng. 2018; 18: 60-68.
12.Tian W-S, Zhao Q-L, Zhang Q-Q, Qiu F, Jiang Q-C. Simultaneously increasing the high-temperature tensile strength and ductility of nano-sized TiC p reinforced Al-Cu matrix composites. Mater Sci Eng A. January 2018.
13.Shah PN, Kapoor S. Nano-Biomaterials and Their Biocompatibility in Restorative Dentistry : A Review. Int J Pharm Sci Invent. 2017; 6(4): 1-6.
14.Aal-Saraj AB, Ariffin Z, Masudi SM. An agar diffusion study comparing the antimicrobial activity of Nanoseal with some other endodontic sealers. Aust Endod J. 2012; 38(2): 60-63.
15.Atanackovic TM, Zorica D. Stability of the rotating compressed nano-rod. ZAMM - J Appl Math Mech / Zeitschrift für Angew Math und Mech. 2014; 94(6): 499-504.
16.Feitosa VP, Fugolin APP, Correr AB, Correr-Sobrinho L, Consani S, Watson TF, Sinhoreti MAC, Sauro S. Effects of different photo-polymerization protocols on resin–dentine μTBS, mechanical properties and cross-link density of a nano-filled resin composite. J Dent. 2012; 40(10): 802-809.
17.Gong W, Huang Z, Dong Y, Gan Y, Li S, Gao X, Chen X. Ionic Extraction of a Novel Nano-sized Bioactive Glass Enhances Differentiation and Mineralization of Human Dental Pulp Cells. J Endod. 2014; 40(1): 83-88.
18.Mantri SS, Mantri SP. The nano era in dentistry. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2013; 4(1): 39-44.
19.Thorat SB, Diaspro A, Salerno M. In vitro investigation of coupling-agent-free dental restorative composite based on nano-porous alumina fillers. J Dent. 2014; 42(3): 279-286.
20.Mackiewicz A, Grzeczkowicz A, Granicka L, Antosiak-Iwańska M, Godlewska E, Gozdowski D, Olczak-Kowalczyk D. Cytotoxicity of Nanocare Gold® in In Vitro Assay – Pilot Study. Dent Med Probl. 2015; 52(2): 167–174.
21.Orłowska K, Bader-Orłowska D, Sołtan E. Clinical Evaluation Performed by Dentistry Students of Restoration Using Nanohybrid Composite. Dent Med Probl. 20113; 50(2): 178-183.
22.Monfared M, Mirdamadi S, Khavandi A. Synthesis of new dental nanocomposite with glass nanoparticles. Nanomedicine J. 2014; 1(2): 107-111.
23.Kim YS, Kwon HK, Kim BI. Effect of nano-carbonate apatite to prevent re-stain after dental bleaching in vitro. J Dent. 2011; 39(9): 636-642.
24.Han Y, Zhao Y, Xie C, Powers JM, Kiat-amnuay S. Color stability of pigmented maxillofacial silicone elastomer: Effects of nano-oxides as opacifiers. J Dent. 2010; 38: e100-e105.
25.Danelon M, Pessan JP, Neto FNS, de Camargo ER, Delbem ACB. Effect of toothpaste with nano-sized trimetaphosphate on dental caries: In situ study. J Dent. 2015; 43(7): 806-813.
26.dos Santos VE, Filho AV, Ribeiro Targino AG, Pelagio Flores MA, Galembeck A, Caldas AF, Rosenblatt A. A New “Silver-Bullet” to treat caries in children – Nano Silver Fluoride: A randomised clinical trial. J Dent. 2014; 42(8): 945-951.
27.Li Q, Mahendra S, Lyon DY, Brunet L, Liga M V., Li D, Alvarez PJJ. Antimicrobial nanomaterials for water disinfection and microbial control: Potential applications and implications. Water Res. 2008; 42(18): 4591-4602.
28.Maryam K. Application of Nanobiomaterials in Endodontics. Biomed J Sci Tech Res. 2017; 1(7): 14-16.
29.Gupta P, Shetty H. Nanotechnology : Its Role in Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics. J Pharm Nanotechnol. 2016; 4(1): 19-21.
30.Ibrahim AIO, Moodley DS, Petrik L, Patel N. Use of antibacterial nanoparticles in Endodontics. Clin Rev. 2017;72(3).
31.Mrużyńska M, Kanaffa-Kilijańska U. Irrigants Used in Endodontic Treatment – Review of the Literature. Dent Med Probl. 2015; 52(4): 491-498.
32.González-Luna PI, Martinez-Castanon GA, Zavala-Alonso NV, Patiño-Marin N, Niño-Martínez N, Morán-Martínez J, Ramírez-González JH. Bactericide Effect of Silver Nanoparticles as a Final Irrigation Agent in Endodontics on Enterococcus faecalis: An Ex Vivo Study. J Nanomater. 2016; 2016.
33.Chan EL, Zhang C, Cheung GS. Cytotoxicity of a novel nano-silver particle endodontic irrigant. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2015; 7: 65-74.
34.Moghadas L, Narimani T, Shahmoradi M. Antimicrobial activity of a new nanobased endodontic irrigation solution: In vitro study. Dent Hypotheses. 2012; 3(4): 142.
35.Monzavi A, Eshraghi S, Hashemian R, Momen-Heravi F. In vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial efficacy of nano-MgO in the elimination of endodontic pathogens. Clin Oral Investig. 2015; 19(2): 349-356.
36.Asgary S, Eghbal MJ, Parirokh M. Sealing ability of a novel endodontic cement as a root-end filling material. J Biomed Mater Res Part A. 2008; 87A(3): 706-709.
37.Saghiri MA, Godoy FG, Gutmann JL, Lotfi M, Asatourian A, Sheibani N, Elyasi M. The effect of pH on solubility of nano-modified endodontic cements. J Conserv Dent. 2014; 17(1): 13-17.
38.Saghiri MA, Asatourian A, Orangi J, Lotfi M, Soukup JW, Garcia-Godoy F, Sheibani N. Effect of particle size on calcium release and elevation of pH of endodontic cements. Dent Traumatol. 2015; 31(3): 196-201.
39.Hosseinzade M, Soflou RK, Valian A, Nojehdehian H. Physicochemical properties of MTA, CEM, hydroxyapatite and nano hydroxyapatite-chitosan dental cements. Biomed Res. 27(2).
40.Saghiri MA, Gutmann JL, Orangi J, Asatourian A, Sheibani N. Radiopacifier particle size impacts the physical properties of tricalcium silicate-based cements. J Endod. 2015; 41(2): 225-230.
41.Javidi M, Zarei M, Naghavi N, Mortazavi M, Nejat AH. Zinc oxide nano-particles as sealer in endodontics and its sealing ability. Contemp Clin Dent. 2014; 5(1): 20-24.
42.Masudi SM, Luddin N, Mohamad D, Alkashakhshir JJ, Adnan R, Ramli RA, Rusop M, Subban RY, Kamarulzaman N, Wui WT. In vitro Study on Apical Sealing Ability of Nano-Hydroxyapatite-Filled Epoxy Resin Based Endodontic Sealer. In; 2010: 467-471.
43.Lee DK, Kim SV, Limansubroto AN, Yen A, Soundia A, Wang CY, Shi W, Hong C, Tetradis S, Kim Y, Park NH, Kang MK, Ho D. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy. ACS Nano. 2015; 9(11): 11490-11501.
44.Akbari M, Zebarjad SM, Nategh B, Rouhani A. Effect of Nano Silica on Setting Time and Physical Properties of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate. J Endod. 2013; 39(11): 1448-1451.
45.Kishen A. Advanced therapeutic options for endodontic biofilms. Endod Top. 2010; 22(1): 99-123.
46.Kishen A, Applications C. Nanotechnology in Endodontics.; 2015.
47.Pagonis TC, Chen J, Fontana CR, Devalapally H, Ruggiero K, Song X, Foschi F, Dunham J, Skobe Z, Yamazaki H, Kent R, Tanner ACR, Amiji MM, Soukos NS. Nanoparticle-based Endodontic Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy. J Endod. 2010; 36(2): 322-328.
48.Akbari T, Pourhajibagher M, Hosseini F, Chiniforush N, Gholibegloo E, Khoobi M, Shahabi S, Bahador A. The effect of indocyanine green loaded on a novel nano-graphene oxide for high performance of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017; 20: 148-153.
49.Calixto G, Bernegossi J, de Freitas L, Fontana C, Chorilli M. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review. Molecules. 2016; 21(3): 342.
50.Koprowicz A, Łęski M, Pawlicka H. Properties of Mechanical Endodontic Instruments and the Quality of the Simulated Canal Preparation. Dent Med Probl. 2016; 53(4): 476-482.
51.Radwański M, Łęski M, Detka K, Pawlicka H. Comparison of Three Different Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Systems in Shaping Simulated L-Shaped Canals. Dent Med Probl. 2016; 53(2): 222-229.
52.Pereira ESJ, Peixoto IFC, Viana ACD, Oliveira II, Gonzalez BM, Buono VTL, Bahia MGA. Physical and mechanical properties of a thermomechanically treated NiTi wire used in the manufacture of rotary endodontic instruments. Int Endod J. 2012; 45(5): 469-474.
53.Ye J, Gao Y. Metallurgical characterization of M-Wire nickel-titanium shape memory alloy used for endodontic rotary instruments during low-cycle fatigue. J Endod. 2012; 38(1): 105-107.
54.Schafer E. Effect of sterilization on the cutting efficiency of PVD-coated nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. Int Endod J. 2002; 35(10): 867-872.
55.Jamleh A, Sadr A, Nomura N, Yahata Y, Ebihara A, Hanawa T, Tagami J, Suda H. Nano-indentation testing of new and fractured nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. Int Endod J. 2012; 45(5): 462-468.
56.Zinelis S, Akhtar R, Tsakiridis P, Watts DC, Silikas N. In-depth hardness profiles of Stainless Steel and Ni-Ti endodontic instrument cross-sections by nano-indentation. Int Endod J. 2008; 41(9): 747-754.