Application of near-infrared light intensity to determine normal and cancerous breast vessel contrast by gold nanoparticles

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2 Medical Radiation Sciences Research Team, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3 Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Objective(s): A novel technique for the early diagnosis of breast cancer involves the use of nanoparticles (NPs). The present study aimed to use gold NPs to assess the variations in light source transfer intensity.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of ×1, ×2, and ×4 were used to simulate normal and cancerous conditions in the breast. Spherical gold NPs (SGNPs) and gold nanorods (GNRs) with various Hb concentrations were injected into the breast phantom, and the intensity of the light transmitted on the wavelength of 635 nanometers was measured. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that SGNPs and GNRs were prepared with a uniform particle shape.
Results: When the SGNPs were blended with the Hb concentrations of ×1, ×2, and ×4, the intensity of the passing light from the vessel was estimated to be 3.62, 2.40, and 1.64 mw, respectively. When GNRs were blended with the Hb concentrations of ×1, ×2, and ×4, the intensity changed to lower values 3.42, 2.13, and 1.98 mw, respectively.
Conclusion: According to the results, SGNPs and GNRs in normal and cancerous breast induced various passing intensities of Hb concentrations. In addition, the vascular contrast induced by GNRs was higher compared to SGNPs.


1.Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics. CA.2015; 65(1): 5-29.
2.Gautherie M. Thermopathology of breast cancer: measurement and analysis of in vivo temperature and blood flow. Ann NY AcadSci. 1980; 335(1): 383-415.
3.Mehnati P, Tirtash MJ. Comparative efficacy of four imaging instruments for breast cancer screening. APJCP. 2015; 16(15): 67-86.
4.Warner E, Plewes D, Shumak R, Catzavelos G, Di Prospero L, YaffeM. Comparison of breast magnetic resonance imaging, mammography, and ultrasound for surveillance of women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer.JCO. 2001; 19(15): 3524-3531.
5.Simick MK, Jong RA, Wilson BC, Lilge LD. Non-ionizing near-infrared radiation transillumination spectroscopy for breast tissue density and assessment of breast cancer risk. JBO. 2004; 9(4): 794-804.
6.Thomlinson R. Changes of oxygenation in tumours in relation to irradiation. The Relationship of Time and Dose in the Radiation Therapy of Cancer. Karger Publishers.1969; 3:p. 109-121.
7.Weidner N, Folkman J, Pozza F, Bevilacqua P, Allred EN, Moore DH. Tumor angiogenesis: a new significant and independent prognostic indicator in early-stage breast carcinoma. JNCI. 1992; 84(24): 15-87.
8.Anderson PG, Kainerstorfer JM, Sassaroli A, Krishnamurthy N, Homer MJ, Graham RA.Broadband optical mammography: chromophore concentration and hemoglobin saturation contrast in breast cancer. PlOS one. 2015; 10(3): 117-322.
9.Spinelli L, Torricelli A, Pifferi A, Taroni P, Danesini G, Cubeddu R. Characterization of female breast lesions from multi-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography. Phys med and biol. 2005; 50(11): 24-89.
10.van de Ven S, Elias S, Wiethoff A, van der Voort M, Leproux A, Nielsen T. Diffuse optical tomography of the breast: initial validation in benign cysts. Mol Imaging Biol. 2009; 64(2): 11-70.
11.Leff DR, Warren OJ, Enfield LC, Gibson A, Athanasiou T, Patten DK,. Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: a systematic review. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008; 108(1): 9-22.
12.Srivastava A, Yadev R, RaiV, Ganguly T, Deb S, editors. Surface plasmon resonance in gold nanoparticles. AIP Conference Proceedings; AIP( 2012).
13.Daraee H, Eatemadi A, Abbasi E, Fekri Aval S, Kouhi M, Akbarzadeh A. Application of gold nanoparticles in biomedical and drug delivery.Artific cell Nanomed and biotech. 2016; 44(1): 4-22.
14.Jain PK, Lee KS, El-Sayed IH, El-Sayed MA. Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine.JCP B. 2006; 110(14): 38-48.
15.Huang X, Jain PK, El-Sayed IH, El-Sayed MA. Gold nanoparticles: interesting optical properties and recent applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy. NLM. 2007; 2(5): 68-93.
16.Giljohann DA, Seferos DS, Daniel WL, Massich MD, Patel PC, Mirkin CA. AngewChemInt Ed Engl. 2010; 49(19): 80-94.
17.Afrooz AN, Sivalapalan ST, Murphy CJ, Hussain SM, Schlager JJ, Saleh NB. Spheres vs. rods: ‘The shape of gold nanoparticles influences aggregation and deposition behavior.JO Chemosphere. 2013; 91(1): 82-98.
18. El-Brolossy T, Abdallah T, Mohamed MB, Abdallah S, Easawi K, Negm S. Shape and size dependence of the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles studied by Photoacoustic technique. EPJ. 2008; 153(1): 361-413.
19.Ntziachristos V, Bremer C, Weissleder R. Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advancesthat enable in vivo molecular imaging.Europe radiol.2003; 13(1): 195-208.
20.Mehnati P, Tirtash MJ, Zakerhamidi MS, Mehnati P. Assessing Absorption Coefficient of Hemoglobin in the Breast Phantom Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. IRAN J RADIOL. 2016; 13(4): 154-167.
21.Taroni P, Pifferi A, Torricelli A, Spinelli L, Danesini G, Cubeddu R. Do shorter wavelengths improve contrast in optical mammography. Physics in Medic& Biolo. 2004; 49(7): 120-132
22.Kosaka N, Ogawa M, Choyke PL, Kobayashi H. Clinical implications of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in cancer.Futu Oncol. 2006; 5(9): 150-168.
23..Herizchi R, Abbasi E, Milani M, Akbarzadeh A. Current methods for synthesis of gold nanoparticles.Artific cell Nanomed and biotech. 2016; 44(2): 596-602.
24.Reddy VR.” Gold nanoparticles: synthesis and applications .Synlett. 2006; 2006(11): 179_211.
25.Chugh H, Sood D, Chandra I, Tomar V, Dhawan G, Chandra R. “Role of gold and silver nanoparticles in cancer nano-medicine.Artific cell Nanomed and biotech. 2018; 29(2): 1-23
26.Gole A, Murphy CJ. Seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods: role of the size and nature of the seed.CM. 2004; 16(19): 36-40.
27.Mehnati P, Khorram S, Zakerhamidi MS, Fahima F. Near-Infrared Visual Differentiation in Normal and Abnormal Breast Using Hemoglobin Concentrations. JLMS. 2018; 9(1): 50-57.