Various parameters in the preparation of chitosan/polyethylene oxide electrospun nanofibers containing Aloe vera extract for medical applications

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran


Objective(s): The present study aimed to fabricate chitosan/polyethylene oxide (CS/PEO) electrospun nanofibers loaded with Aloe vera extract for biomedical applications. The polymer-to-extract ratio and electrospinning parameters (applied voltage and nozzle-to-collector distance) were evaluated in order to optimize the process of nanofiber fabrication.
Materials and Methods: The characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ImageJ software, attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), tensile strength test, and UV-Vis spectroscopy.
Results: The obtained results indicated that the fabrication of nanofibers from pure Aloe vera extract was unsuccessful, and reducing the extract concentration from 100% to 92% resulted in the formation of the nanofibers. Moreover, further reduction in the extract from 92% to 50% led to the production of fine nanofibers (mean diameters: 204±42 and 398±51 nm, respectively). Therefore, it was concluded that the reduced concentration of the herbal extract increased the diameters of the prepared nanofibers. In addition, the results of the optimization process indicated a direct correlation between the applied voltage and nanofiber diameters, as well as an inverse correlation between the nozzle-to-collector distance and nanofiber diameters. The FTIR spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of CS, PEO, and Aloe vera in the final prepared scaffold. The release measurement revealed a burst effect within the first five hours, followed by a sustain release within 30 hours. Moreover, the biocompatibility assay confirmed the proliferative potential of Aloe vera within seven days.
Conclusion: According to the results, a nanofibrous scaffold composed of CS and PEO could be fabricated as the carrier of Aloe vera extract, which is a suitable platform for biomedical applications.


1.A Esmaeili, M Ebrahimzadeh. Preparation of polyamide nanocapsules of Aloe vera L. delivery with in vivo studies, AAPS PharmSciTech. 2015; 16(2): 242-249.
2.AA Maan, A Nazir, MKI Khan, T Ahmad, R Zia, M Murid, M Abrar. The therapeutic properties and applications of aloe vera: a review. J Herb Med. 2018; 12: 1-10.
3.S Devaraj, R Jialal, I Jialal, J Rockwood. A pilot randomized placebo controlled trial of 2 Aloe vera supplements in patients with pre-diabetes/metabolic syndrome. Planta Med. 2008; 74(09): SL77.
4.EB Byun, HM Kim, NY Sung, MS Yang, WS Kim, D Choi, S Mushtaq, SS Lee, EH Byun. Gamma irradiation of aloe-emodin induced structural modification and apoptosis through a ROS-and caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway in stomach tumor cells. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018; 94(4): 403-416.
5.BC Coats. Treatment of plants, fruits and vegetables to increase growth, eliminate insects and increase shelf-life with aloe vera gel, Google Patents, 2018.
6.B Benzidia, M Barbouchi, H Hammouch, N Belahbib, M Zouarhi, H Erramli, NA Daoud, N Badrane, N Hajjaji, Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of tannins extract from green rind of Aloe vera (L.) Burm F. JKSUS. 2018. 05. 022.
7.N Tara, BS Saharan. Plant growth promoting traits shown by bacteria Brevibacterium frigrotolerans SMA23 Isolated from Aloe vera rhizosphere. Agricultural Science Digest. 2017; 37(3).
8.L de Freitas Cuba, A Braga Filho, K Cherubini, FG Salum, MAZ de Figueiredo. Topical application of Aloe vera and vitamin E on induced ulcers on the tongue of rats subjected to radiation: clinical and histological evaluation. Support Care Cancer. 2016; 24(6): 2557-2564.
9. N Meena, BS Saharan. Effective Biocontrol of Leaf Rot Disease on Aloe vera Plant by PGPR in Green House Experiment. BEPLS. 2017; 7(1): 24-28.
10.SE Dal’Belo, L Rigo Gaspar, BGM Campos, P Maria. Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques, Skin Res Technol. 2006; 12(4): 241-246.
11.BL Chou. Aloe Vera glove and manufacturing method, Google patent, EP1774863A3, 2001.
12. A Ehterami, M Salehi, S Farzamfar, H Samadian, A Vaeez, S Ghorbani, J Ai, H Sahrapeyma. Chitosan/alginate hydrogels containing Alpha-tocopherol for wound healing in rat mode. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol. 2019; 51: 204-213.
13.H Samadian, SS Zakariaee, R Faridi-Majidi. Evaluation of effective needleless electrospinning parameters controlling polyacrylonitrile nanofibers diameter via modeling artificial neural networks. J TEXT I. 2019; 110(4): 477-486.
14. A Ehterami, M Salehi, S Farzamfar, A Vaez, H Samadian, H Sahrapeyma, M Mirzaii, S Ghorbani, A Goodarzi. In vitro and in vivo study of PCL/collagen wound dressing loaded with insulin-chitosan nanoparticles on cutaneous wound healing in rats model. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 1; 117: 601-609.
15.S Farzamfar, M Naseri-Nosar, H Samadian, S Mahakizadeh, R Tajerian, M Rahmati, A Vaez, M Salehi. Taurine-loaded poly (ε-caprolactone)/gelatin electrospun mat as a potential wound dressing material: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. J Bioact Compat Polym. 2017; 0883911517737103.
16.H Samadian, M Salehi, S Farzamfar, A Vaez, A Ehterami, H Sahrapeyma, A Goodarzi, S Ghorbani. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite mats for wound dressing applications. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2018; 1-11.
17.H Samadian, H Mobasheri, S Hasanpour, R Faridi-Majid. Needleless electrospinning system, an efficient platform to fabricate carbon nanofibers. J NANO RES, Trans Tech Pub. 2017; 78-89.
18.H Samadian, H Mobasheri, S Hasanpour, R Faridi Majidi. Electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers and simulation of electric field via finite element method. Nanomed Res J. 2017; 2(2): 87-92.
19.Oa Saibuatong, M Phisalaphong. Novo aloe vera–bacterial cellulose composite film from biosynthesis. Carbohydr Polym. 2010; 79(2): 455-460.
20.D MubarakAli, N Thajuddin, K Jeganathan, M Gunasekaran. Plant extract mediated synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against clinically isolated pathogens. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2011; 85(2): 360-365.
21.D Dinesh, K Murugan, P Madhiyazhagan, C Panneerselvam, PM Kumar, M Nicoletti, W Jiang, G Benelli, B Chandramohan, U Suresh. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Parasitol Res. 2015; 114(4): 1519-1529.
22.T Wang, M Turhan, S Gunasekaran. Selected properties of pH‐sensitive, biodegradable chitosan–poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel. Polym Int. 2004; 53(7): 911-918.
23.I Pucić, T Jurkin. FTIR assessment of poly (ethylene oxide) irradiated in solid state, melt and aqeuous solution. Radiat Phys Chem. 2012; 81(9): 1426-1429.
24.K Prakobna, C Terenzi, Q Zhou, I Furó, LA Berglund. Core–shell cellulose nanofibers for biocomposites–Nanostructural effects in hydrated state. Carbohydr Polym. 2015; 125: 92-102.
25.R Wu, R Niamat, B Sansbury, M Borjigin. Fabrication and evaluation of multilayer nanofiber-hydrogel meshes with a controlled release property. Fibers. 2015; 3(3): 296-308.
26.E Zahedi, A Esmaeili, N Eslahi, M Shokrgozar, A Simchi. Fabrication and Characterization of Core-Shell Electrospun Fibrous Mats Containing Medicinal Herbs for Wound Healing and Skin Tissue Engineering. Mar Drugs. 2019; 17(1): 27.
27.P Carter, SM Rahman, N Bhattarai. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2016; 27(7): 692-708.