Comparison of the presence and non-presence states of magnetite nanoparticles in tissue-equivalent breast phantom via radiofrequency hyperthermia

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objective(s): Breast cancer is a fatal disease and the leading cause of mortality in women. Radiofrequency hyperthermia is an approach to the treatment of cancer cells through increasing their temperature. The present study aimed to investigate breast tumor ablation via radiofrequency hyperthermia in the presence and non-presence states of magnetite nanoparticles and assess the effects of magnetite nanoparticles on breast cancer treatment in hyperthermia.
Materials and Methods: Radius hemisphere geometry (5 cm) was designed, which was similar to an actual breast based on the fat tissues, glandular tissues as a semi-oval embedded in the hemisphere, and a radius sphere (1 cm) as a tumor region inside. After utilization in a three-dimensional printer, each layer of the phantom was filled with a proper combination of oil-gelatin with similar dielectric and thermal properties to an actual breast. To evaluate the effects of the magnetite nanoparticles, three weights of the magnetite were added to the tumor region (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 g). Finally, the phantom was placed in a radiofrequency device with the frequency of 13.56 MHz.
Results: Temperature differences were measured at four different points of the phantom. The power and time in the treatment were estimated at 40 watts and five minutes, respectively. The temperature and specific absorption rate plots were obtained for all the states in several graphs for five minutes.
The results showed that the heat generation with the utilization of the magnetite state was higher by approximately 2.5-7˚C compared to the state without magnetite. Furthermore, the temperature of 0.05 gram of magnetite indicated that without causing damage in the healthy tissues, the entire tumor region could attain adequate heat uniformly (6.1-6.4˚C).
Conclusion: Therefore, it could be concluded that 0.05 gram of magnetite could cause ablation in the entire tumor region.


1. González-Díaz C, Uscanga-Carmona MC, Ibarra-Martínez CD, Jiménez-Fernández ME, Lozano Trenado LM, Silva-Escobedo JG, Polo-Soto SM. Differentiation BIRADS I vs II by Magnetic Induction Spectroscopy: A Potential Innovative Method to Detect Neoplasies in Breast. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Biomédica. 2012; 33(2): 65-76.
2.Mannello F. Understanding breast cancer stem cell heterogeneity: time to move on to a new research paradigm. BMC Medicine. 2013; 11(1): 169.
3.Velasco-Velázquez M A, Homsi Nora, De La Fuente Marisol, Pestell Richard G. Breast cancer stem cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012; 44(4): 573-577.
4.Al-Hajj Muhammad, Wicha Max S, Benito-Hernandez Adalberto, Morrison Sean J, Clarke Michael F. Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci. U.S.A. 2003; 100(7): 3983-3988.
5.Jordan A, Wust P, Scholz R, Tesche B, Fähling H, Mitrovics T, Vogl T, Cervos-Navarro J, Felix R. Cellular uptake of magnetic fluid particles and their effects on human adenocarcinoma cells exposed to AC magnetic fields in vitro. Int J Hyperth. 1996; 12(6): 705-722.
6.Nielsen OS, Horsman M, Overgaard J. A future for hyperthermia in cancer treatment?. Eur J Cancer. 2001; 37(13): 1587-1589.
7.Sneed PK, Stauffer PR, McDermott MW, Diederich CJ, Lamborn KR, Prados MD, Chang S, Weaver KA, Spry L, Malec MK, Lamb SA, Voss B, Davis RL, Wara WM, Larson DA, Phillips TL, Gutin PH. Survival benefit of hyperthermia in a prospective randomized trial of brachytherapy boost ± hyperthermia for glioblastoma multiforme. Int J Radiat Oncol. 1998; 40(2): 287-295.
8.Lee TW, Murad Greg JA, Hoh BL, Rahman M. Fighting Fire with Fire: The Revival of Thermotherapy for Gliomas. Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(2): 565-574.
9.Carpentier A, McNichols RJ, Stafford RJ, Guichard J-P, Reizine D, Delaloge S, Vicaut E, Payen D, Gowda A, George B. Laser thermal therapy: Real-time MRI-guided and computer-controlled procedures for metastatic brain tumors. Lasers Surg Med. 2011; 43(10): 943-950.
10.Sneed, P.K., Hyperthermia. Textbook of Radiat Oncol. 2004; :1569-1596.
11.Wust P, Hildebrandt B, Sreenivasa G, Rau B, Gellermann J, Riess H, Felix R, Schlag PM. Hyperthermia in combined treatment of cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2002; 3(8): 487-497.
12.Falk MH, Issels RD. Hyperthermia in oncology. Int J Hyperth. 2001; 17(1): 1-18.
13.Horsman M, Overgaard J. Hot Topic: Can mild hyperthermia improve tumour oxygenation?. Int J Hyperth. 1997; 13(2): 141-147.
14.Henrich F, Rahn H, Odenbach S. Heat transition during magnetic heating treatment: Study with tissue models and simulation. J Magn Magn Mater. 2015; 380: 353-359.
15.Gilchrist RK, Medal R, Shorey WD, Hanselman RC, Parrott JC, Taylor CB. Selective inductive heating of lymph nodes. Ann Surg. 1957; 146(4): 596-606.
16.Stang J, Haynes M, Carson P, Moghaddam M. A preclinical system prototype for focused microwave thermal therapy of the breast. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2012; 59(9): 2431-2438.
17.Lazebnik M, Madsen EL, Frank GR, Hagness SC. Tissue-mimicking phantom materials for narrowband and ultrawideband microwave applications. Phys Med Biol. 2005; 50(18): 4245-4258.
18.Mukherjee S, Udpa L, Udpa S, Rothwell EJ, Deng Y. Microwave Time-Reversal Mirror for Imaging and Hyperthermia Treatment of Breast Tumors. Prog Electromagn Res. 2019; 77: 1-16.
19.Yuan Y, Wyatt C, Maccarini P, Stauffer P, Craciunescu O, MacFall J, Dewhirst M, Das SK. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification. Phys Med Biol. 2012; 57(7): 2021.
20.Miaskowski A, Sawicki B. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia modeling based on phantom measurements and realistic breast model. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013; 60(7): 1806-1813.
21.Tayel M, Abouelnaga T, Elnagar A. Pencil Beam Grid Antenna Array for Hyperthermia Breast Cancer Treatment System. Circ Syst. 2017; 8(05): 122.
22.Nguyen PT, Abbosh AM, Crozier S. Thermo-Dielectric Breast Phantom for Experimental Studies of Microwave Hyperthermia. IEEE Antennas Wirel Propag Lett. 2016; 15: 476-479.
23.Hergt R, Dutz S, Müller R, Zeisberger M. Magnetic particle hyperthermia: nanoparticle magnetism and materials development for cancer therapy. J Phys Condens Matter. 2006; 18(38): 2919.
24.Jeun M. Physical limits of pure superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for a local hyperthermia agent in nanomedicine. Appl Phys Lett. 2012; 100(9): 092406.
25.Heydari M, Javidi M, Attar MM, Karimi A, Navidbakhsh M, Haghpanahi M, Amanpour S. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia in a cylindrical gel contains water flow. J Mech Med Biol. 2015; 15(05): 1550088.
26.Henrich F, Rahn H, Odenbach S. Investigation of heat distribution during magnetic heating treatment using a polyurethane–ferrofluid phantom-model. J Magn Magn Mater. 2014; 351: 1-7.
27.Ma M, Zhang Y, Shen X, Xie J, Li Y, Gu N. Targeted inductive heating of nanomagnets by a combination of alternating current (AC) and static magnetic fields. Nano Res. 2015; 8(2): 600-610.
28.Kappiyoor R, Liangruksa M, Ganguly R, Puri IK. The effects of magnetic nanoparticle properties on magnetic fluid hyperthermia. J Appl Phys. 2010; 108(9): 094702.
29.Joines WT, Zhang Y, Li C, Jirtle RL. The measured electrical properties of normal and malignant human tissues from 50 to 900. Med Phys. 1994; 21(4): 547-550.
30.Kavousi M, Saadatmand E, Riahi Alam N. Physical Parameters Measurement of Breast Equivalent Phantom for Clinical Studies in Radiofrequency Hyperthermia. Frontiers Biomed Technol. 6(1):28-34.
31.Dabbagh A, Abdullah AJJ, Ramasindarum C, Abu Kasim NH. Tissue-Mimicking Gel Phantoms for Thermal Therapy Studies. Ultrason Imaging. 2014; 36(4): 291-316.
32.Zhou T, Meaney PM, Fanning MW, Geimer ShD, Paulsen KD. Integrated microwave thermal imaging system with mechanically steerable HIFU therapy device. Spie Bios. 2009; 7181.
33.Wei Y, Han B, Hu X, Lin Y, Wang X, Deng X. Synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their magnetic properties. Procedia. 2012; 27: 632-7.