In vitro and In vivo Investigation of poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite nanoparticle scaffold containing nandrolone decanoate for the regeneration of critical-sized bone defects

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

2 Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Research Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

3 School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom Branch, Jahrom, Iran

6 Dentistry Student, Scientific Research Center, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

7 Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417755469, Iran

8 Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

9 Craniomaxillofacial Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

10 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

11 Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran


Objective(s): Bone tissue engineering is aimed at the fabrication of bone graft to ameliorate bone defects without using autografts or allografts.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, the coprecipitation method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles containing nandrolone. To do so, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg of nandrolone were loaded into poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/nano-HA, and the freeze casting method was used to fabricate porous scaffolds. The morphology, mechanical strength, wettability, porosity, degradation, blood compatibility, and cellular response of the scaffolds were evaluated using various tests. For further investigation, the developed scaffolds were incorporated into the rat calvaria defect model, and their effects on bone healing were evaluated.
Results: The obtained results indicated that the fabricated scaffolds had the approximate porosity of 80% and compress strength of 6.5 MPa. Moreover, the prepared scaffolds had appropriate hydrophilicity, weight loss, and blood compatibility. Furthermore, the histopathological findings demonstrated that the defects filled with the PLA/nano-HA scaffolds containing 25 mg nandrolone healed better compared to the other study groups.
Conclusion: Therefore, it was concluded that the scaffolds containing nandrolone could be used in bone regeneration.


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