Neuronal toxicity of biopolymer-template synthesized ZnO nanoparticles


1 Nuclear Medicine Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Chemistry Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran, Iran

4 Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


A simple and "green" method was developed for preparing zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in aqueous starch solutions. Starch was used as a stabilizer to control of the mobility of zinc cations and then control growth of ZnO-NPs prepared via a sol-gel method. Because of the special structure of the starch, it permits termination of the particle growth.
Materials and Methods:
The dried gel was calcined at different temperatures of 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C. The prepared ZnO-NPs were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-Vis absorption. Results: The XRD results displayed hexagonal (wurtzite) crystalline structure for prepared ZnO nanoparticles with mean sizes below than 50 nm. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on neuro2A cells showed a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 6 μg/mL.

The results showed that starch is an eco-friendly material that can be used as a stabilizing agent in the sol-gel technique for preparing of ZnO-NPs in a large scale.

1. Darroudi M, Ahmad M B, Khorsand Zak A, Zamiri R, Hakimi M. Fabrication and characterization of gelatin stabilized silver nanoparticles under UV-light. Int J Mol Sci. 2011; 12: 6346-6356.
2. Qiang J L. The surface properties and photocatalytic activities of ZnO ultrafine particles. Appl Surf Sci. 2001; 180: 308–314.
3. Zamiri R, Azmi B Z, Darroudi M, Khorsand Zak A. Aqueous starch as a stabilizer in zinc oxide nanoparticle synthesis via laser ablation. J Alloy Compd. 2012; 516: 41-48.
4. Razali R, Khorsand Zak A, Majid W H A, Darroudi M. Solvothermal synthesis of microsphere ZnO nanostructures in DEA media. Ceram Int. 2011; 37: 3657-3663.
5. Khorsand Zak A, Darroudi M, Majid W H A. Synthesis and characterization of narrow size distribution zinc oxide nanoparticles. Int. J Nanomed. 2011; 6: 1399-1403.
6. Khorsand Zak A, Majid W H A, Darroudi M, Yousefi R. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in gelatin media. Mater Lett. 2011; 65: 70-73.
7. Darroudi M, Sabouri Z, Kazemi Oskuee R, Khorsand Zak A, Kargar H, Hamid M H N A. Sol-gel synthesis, characterization, and neurotoxicity effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles using gum tragacanth. Ceram Int. 2013; 39: 6917-6921.
8. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Ahangar H A, Darroudi M, Zamiri G, Rizwan Z, Drummen G P C. The effect of laser repetition rate on the LASiS synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles in aqueous starch solution. Int J Nanomed. 2013; 8: 233-244.
9. Darroudi M, Hakimi M, Sarani M, Kazemi Oskuee R, Khorsand Zak A, Gholami L. Facile synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of neurotoxicity effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Ceram Int. 2013; 39: 6917-6921.
10. Darroudi M, Khorsand Zak A, Nuhamad M R, Huang N M, Hakimi M. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles by sonochemical method. Mater Lett. 2012; 66: 117-120.
11. Zamiri R, Azmi B Z, Naseri M G, Abbastabar Ahangar H, Darroudi M, Kalaei Nazarpour F. Laser based fabrication of chitosan mediated silver nanoparticles. Appl Phys A-Mater Sci Process. 2011; 105: 255-259.
12. Chen S, Zhou B, Hu W, Zhang W, Yin N, Wang H. Polyol mediated synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles templated by bacterial cellulose. Carbohydr Polym. 2013; 92: 1953-1959.
13. Raveendran P, Fu J, Wallen S L. J Am Chem Soc. 2003; 125: 13940-13941.
14. Raveendran P, Fu J, Wallen S L. Green Chem. 2005; 8:34-38.
15. Staroszczyk H, Janas P. Microwave-assisted synthesis of zinc derivatives of potato starch. Carbohydr Polym. 2010; 80: 962-969.
16. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983; 65: 55-63.
17. Khorsand Zak A, Majid W H A, Mahmoudian M R, Darroudi M, Yousefi R. Starch-stabilized synthesis of ZnO nanopowders at low temperature and optical properties study. Adv Powder Technol. 2013; 24: 618-624.
18. Khorsand Zak A, Yousefi R, Majid W H A, Muhamad M R. Facile synthesis and X-ray peak broadening studies of Zn1−xMgxO nanoparticles. Ceram Int. 2012; 38: 2059-2064.
19. Harding F. Breast Cancer: Cause-Prevention-Cure. England: Tekline Publishing; 2006.
20. Ohkubo I, Ohtomo A, Ohnishi T, Mastumoto Y, Koinuma H, Kawasaki M. 10.In-plane and polar orientations of ZnO thin films grown on atomically flat sapphire. Surf Sci Lett. 1999; 443: 1043-1048.
21. Djuricic B, Pickering S. Nanostructured cerium oxide: preparation and properties of weakly-agglomerated powders. J Euro Ceram Soc. 1999; 19: 1925-1934.